Wednesday, December 07, 2005

Writing: Action Scenes

Recently, our morphine-grogged friend (get well soon) Josh Friedman penned another one of his mini-masterpieces on writing sex scenes. Specifically, how he find writing sex scenes interesting, but he's not all that sussed on writing action scenes. I cite the relevant passage mined from the good stuff about Angeline Jolie and Mickey Rourke's toilet:

The people who are fucking lazy are the writers. Honestly, what does an action scene do to move a story ahead? Nothing. What does it do for a characters' journey? Nothing. What does it do for the movie itself? Take up a chunk of time that now doesn't need to be filled with character and story.

And you know why? Because character and story are hard things to write. And it's easy to write an action scene. I know. I've written hundreds of them. They bore the crap out of me. But at least I know they're gonna take up some pages in my screenplay without me having to figure out the hard stuff. Action sequences are the junk food in any writer's kitchen. That's not to say there aren't good action sequences--ones that literally take your breath away--but those are few and far between. For me, when the tripod in WOTW comes out of the ground and starts blowing shit up with no mercy--my jaw dropped open and my heart actually raced. And I bring that up exactly BECAUSE I was involved in the movie. I knew it was coming and yet it still got me excited.

And shouldn't the point of action sequences be excitement? No one wants to admit that--but violence in film is supposed to be EXCITING. It rarely is. But that doesn't stop people from jamming a movie full of it for no reason other than lazy writing.

And thus boring the shit out of us.

Now, what's interesting here is that in looking back on my entire career, I realized that I have never written a sex scene, while I find writing spiffy action sequences just buckets of goddam fun. We are two sides of the same coin, Josh and I -- soon we will meet in mortal combat, pitting our avataric powers against each other in the skies above Alamagordo, settling once and for all the eternal struggle between light and dark ...

Ahem. No, this is probably because, personally, I find the situation of two people who want to sleep together but don't or can't far more interesting a story dynamic than consumation. This is an odd admission, but for me almost all film sex scenes are boring as dirt. The conflict is (at least for this scene) closed, so we're going to muck around in soft-focus denoument for five minutes? If the the entire thrust of storytelling is conflict, and both characters want the same thing (to have ze sex) ... you get my point. The only interest in a film sex scene is when chemistry trumps structure.

Also, I don't really get my jollies unless the woman is dressed like a pirate. But I don't think that invalidates my point. Not completely, anyway.

Josh points out a great weakness in action scenes as written in American film -- they're pauses in the job of developing story and character. Where this came from, well, I'm not going to lay everything on the feet of directors, but ... suck it, camera boys. This is a distinctly American issue -- action sequence as end-point. Writers have fallen into this habit because that's just how action sequences have come to be defined in American films. I run smack-dab into this all the time:

Executive: But I don't get it. When did we find out about that subplot?
Me: It was the reveal at the center of the action sequence.
Executive: Oh, as soon as I see the action start, I just skip over that writing. Nothing ever happens in an action sequence, and I hate them anyway.
Me: Huh.
Executive: ... pardon me, but you seem to have driven your pen into my left temple.
Me: Sorry.

Don't do it, Spec-Monkeys. Don't treat your action sequences like dirty little obligations.

You don't do an action sequence for the sake of doing a damn action sequence -- you do an action sequence because it's a new or more effective way to advance your character or story.

Would you ever intentionally write a scene in which your protagonist was completely reactive, and the outcome of the scene was a foregone conclusion? Of course not. Screenwriting 101, and your drum-circle of a writing group would pillory you for it. But that is precisely how 99.999999999 % of action sequences are currently written.

If you are not a fan of action sequences -- and I am a fan, a junkie, I can parse them out in ninety different flavors -- then you may approach the basic dynamic of an action scene thusly:

Objective: Character wants to escape bad guys.
Dramatic Question: Will character escape bad guys?

The problem, here, of course is that the character objective is -- as stated -- completely reactive, and the dramatic question is answered "Well, duh, we're only halfway through the movie." All the sturm and drang and "hey that's the exact same car-bounces-just-over-our-head shot as in your previous movie and you know who you are, Sparky" business is just noise. Big, good-for-the-reel but shit-for-the-audience noise. You have to really notch up the visual tricks to overcome this, and to some degree I think we may have topped out. I hold, for example, that the car chase is now dead as a filmic device. Dead.

Tossing aside all the bigger philosophy, here's my attack: make sure every action sequence has a separate goal within the sequence which might legitimately suceed or fail with derailing the movie. Slap a little suspense beat down as your seed, then let your action sequence arrive from the a.) circumstances surrounding the goal or b.) choices of the character.

You can stop reading now, if you just take this away: Don't write action sequences. Write suspense sequences that require action to resolve.

Moving on, and this was beaten into me by the nice Hong Kong humans I've worked with: every action sequence has its own internal three act structure. Objective, complication, resolution. And not only that, but the complication needs to be something which forces a choice on the character, not just a complication in physical circumstances.

It is valid for the complication to be "the odds suddenly become impossible" if a.) the odds are indeed im-goddam-possible in the context of the movie so far and b.) the way the protagonist overcomes these odds is illustrative of the character.

If I may have the arrogance to discuss movies by some very amazing film-makers -- for me, this is one of the reasons The Matrix still holds up, and the sequels are two of the most boring movies I have ever, ever, ever seen.

In The Matrix, the Brothers Wachowski spend the entire movie setting the stakes: do not fight an Agent. When you see an Agent, run. The movie opens with Trinity doing one of the most AMAZINGLY BADASS things we've seen on film, and then she spends five minutes running in a blind panic from the Agents.

So, in the first big action sequence*: the Agents are coming. Oh shit. We need to outwit them, outrun them, but in no way, shape, or form do we stand a chance against them. When Morpheus has to stay and fight, there is no guarantee he's going to get out of this (suspense) and we're hooked because they've spent a lot of time making sure Morpheus is a sympathetic and emotionally involved character.

The second big action sequence: rescuing Morpheus. The choices Neo makes and abilites he shows actually evolve the story and his character. He's learning about the nature of the world. Learning to sacrifice. Going from a watcher to a participant. The action is simply the lens through which we see this growth -- the visually arresting, badass lens. This sequence is particularly noteworthy, as you can actually track its internal three-act progression of Neo quite clearly.

"I may not be the One, but I'm going to help my guy."
"You moved like they do."
"Holy shit, he is the One."

This leads into the third sequence: Neo fights Agent Smith. Now, we're pretty close to the end of the movie here, so we may well assume that "duh, of course Neo's going to win." But the Wachowski's have done something masterful. First, even in the previous sequence, the heroes only beat an Agent when they cheat. Two on one, and they still need Neo to pull a trick he's never exhibited before, changing the rules in mid-fight. This Smith fight is the first mano-a-mano fight. The threat and obstacle are escalated way, WAY over what they've been before. Second, it's a payoff -- Smith is one of the best screen antagonists of the last ten years. We wannnnnt to see the throwdown we've been waiting for, the one the film's been quite consciously avoiding all the way up to this point. Third -- the exterior complication of the squids arriving. Fourth -- this fight is a character moment. This fight is Neo saying: "No. I'm not going to run anymore. I stand and fight and die here." This is the moment in the film where Neo-we leave our cubicles and beat up our bosses, or stand up and fight all the bastards in suits who shove us around and make us feel unimportant. This is "Take this job and shove it" with gun-fu, and that's a powerful gut-check moment. All those factors combined are necessary to overcome the "well, of course he'll survive" instinct.

If you've seen the sequels, all I have to say is "Burly Brawl", and you get my point.

*********************************

Leaving aside the flame wars that analysis will spark in the Comments, I'll pull something possibly illustrative out of something I worked on: Lee Childs' Killing Floor. The rights are tied up in a rights kerfuffle over at Paramount now, so I feel free to discuss it.

There's a moment in the book where the protagonist, ex-military cop Jack Reacher, goes up against two Bad Men sent to kill him. Jack doesn't go mano-a-mano with them. He uses a particularly nice bit of strategy and makes a particularly brutal choice, which illustrate both his training and his personal morality. We learn Jack Reacher is someone With Whom You Do Not Fuck, and look forward to seeing him unleash unpleasantness on the main bad guys.

But still ... it's in the Second Act, and in our heart of hearts we know Jack's going to get out of it. It's a nice action sequence, and it serves to illustrate Jack in a way that the pleasant conversations he's had with people up to this point do not -- cannot -- but still it can only break two ways: Jack lives or Jack dies. And we kind of know Jack's going to live.

So I tried to find a story beat that could break either way. In the book, a Young Woman arrives who is a source of Information. She's killed before our people can talk to her. She's also intimately, emotionally tied to Jack.

So I blended the two together. The Young Woman arrives, she brings the Information, but is snatched by the Bad Men. Jack now has to go up against the Bad Men. But now, on top of the nice bit of action choreography and the character moment, we get suspense stakes. The bit can break multiple ways: Jack can survive, but fail to rescue the Young Woman and the Information. Jack can save the Young Woman and the Information. The Young Woman dies, but Jack gets the Information. Jack survives but the Young Woman and/or the Information are somehow removed from his grasp. None of these results will break the movie, so we as viewers can't dismiss them as possible scene endings.

Which leads us to our last trick: Pipe. So boring. So horrible. But if you make pipe the objective of an action sequence, or a by-product, it all goes down much more smoothly.

All this to reinforce what I mentioned earlier (Christ I am chatty):

Don't write action scenes. Write suspense scenes that require action to resolve.

Good luck, and take from it what you will.

139 comments:

RogerRmjet said...

"Don't write action sequences. Write suspense sequences that require action to resolve."

Gotta paste that one over my computer. Great advice.

Roscoe said...

I love reading the specific examples you use in these posts. What are some other great action scenes?

This is any easy one, but I think of Luke vs. Vader in Empire.

Anonymous said...

The fight at the end of the first Lethal Weapon works because everything has built Mr. Joshua as a bad ass and Riggs as a bad ass with a death wish. So while you know that one way or another Mr. Joshua is going down, you don't know if this is Riggs' latest chance to try to kill himself.

John Donald Carlucci said...

Wasn't Riggs supposed to die at the end of Lethal Weapon? I thought the studio changed that in case of a sequel.
---
I was the only person in my group of friends who felt that the Matrix was a complete film and there was no need to show the coming battle. I took shit for that until the sequels came out and they came around to my thoughts on the series.

Great post John

JDC

coltrane said...

I've always looked at action scenes in movies the same way dance numbers function in musicals. This is why I think Spielberg is the best creator of the action sequence in film history. The action scenes in his films are shot, choreographed and scored like musical numbers.

coltrane said...

Oh, and Neo fought Agent Smith, not Agent Anderson in The Matrix. Tom Anderson is Neo's character's real name.

Juancho said...

Thank you for illustrating everything wrong with the last two Matrix films by explaining why the first one works so well.

These maxims are going over my computer as well.

Alex Epstein said...

Huh. I find dialog scenes fun and (relatively) easy. Action is hard. Perhaps now it will be easier. Superb post.

Anonymous said...

hello, i'm a new screenwriter, i don't exactly get what you mean by pipe?

"But if you make pipe the objective of an action sequence, or a by-product, it all goes down much more smoothly."

Could anyone elaborate on this? thank you for this very interesting post

Sizemore said...

I remember enjoying Lethal Weapon right up to the moment when they decide to have fisticuffs on the lawn. Dumb. But having him face off against his wife's killer in the second one was genius.

How about the final fight at the close of House of Flying Daggers? Everything that has gone on before is so measured and graceful, but by the time it comes for Jin and Leo to throw down that shit is out the window and things get BRUTAL as they hack pieces off each other and pure physical exhaustion takes over. It helps that they get so damn bloody in a field of snow of course...

The best action scenes I've seen in an American movie in ages were all in Cronenberg's A History of Violence. They were fast, short and shocking, but no matter how fucked up the bad guys got (and they got FUCKED UP) all the strength of those scenes came from Mortensen's face as he became another man. Those 'transformation' scenes alone top most films I saw this year and helped AHOV become probably my favourite horror movie of 2005.

Rogers said...

Anderson typo corrected. THat's what I get for writing at 7 am.

The dnace analogy is perfect. When we were breaking Jackie Chan into the cartoon, we ran into the whole "isn't his shtick that he really does all this?" argument. What I had to explain was that made Jackie's work beautiful was the elegance and choreography, not just the danger.

econoclast said...

Me, too, on the pipe thing.

1031 said...

Also, I don't really get my jollies unless the woman is dressed like a pirate.

So have you seen that new million dollar porn flick called Pirates?

Rogers said...

definition of pipe and several other useful terms are in here.

Laurean said...

I have to agree with the sex scenes... especially how laughable they can get.

I will cite The Thomas Crown affair. Fantastic movie....after the first watch the sex scene is pretty dry.

I also really like how you explained the Matrix action plot out to a 't'. I never had thought about it in that context, but you raise many valid points about how the story is told.

marc bernardin said...

nice post...

I was rewatching Wages of Fear, and it is amazing how much Clouzot knew about what an action scene is supposed to be--a "tension scene," really--and how much Hollywood's forgotten in the intervening 50 years.

Jon said...

Sweeeeetttttt post.... Wish I'd read this two scripts ago.

Joshua said...

I'm with you, the last two Matrix movies blew serious chunks . . .

What pissed me off was that Neo was supposed to free the human slaves in the Matrix (which is how the first one ends) but the latter two movies have nothing to do with that, he cares nothing about the slaves, he only wants to save the smelly, dancing hedonists who live below, who are not slaves.

The slaves (who die alongside agents) are forgotten - Neo doesn't live up to his promise to show them the Matrix and all it's glory, the promise that he made at the end of the first film - and that's the sequels true failure -

oops, I'm a bit touchy about this -

Thanks for the post, Rogers.

Thaddeus said...

Come on... Bound, Body Heat, Body Double, Three Days of The Condor, Secretary, Indiana Jones (on the sub) Young Frankenstein.... perhaps there are suspense sequences that require sex to be resolved

Rogers said...

Well, the choice of having sex or not is the resolution choice, but the sex scenes themselves are then essentially coda. The Big Easy is one of the exceptions, where the seduction scene can go weither way, and so it's inherently suspenseful.

Raises a good question, though, what's the difference between a sex scene and a seduction scene?

Thaddeus said...

Sometimes a sex scene is just that, but a seduction, a suspensefull action sequence, much like a hunt or chase, can lead to sex and possibly something more. I'm thinking the popularity of vampire movies - the seduction leads to sex and usually loss of soul/immortality or death. It has been a long time, but perhaps a look at The Hunger may be in order.

josh friedman said...

And if people wrote action scenes the way Rogers suggests writing them I never would've written my post.

Rogers said...

I have a tiny, tiny subset of skills. I do what I can.

writergurl said...

This post sums up why I hated and I do mean HATED Kill Bill 1 and refuse to see KB2.

Westacular said...

Speaking of bad action scenes: I'd like to suggest that boat chases are dead, and that it was Live and Let Die that completely, irrevocably killed them.

writergurl, you're missing out with KB2. There really isn't much "action scenes" in it at all, just a couple and they're short and to the point. It's far more interesting than the first half.

Rogers said...

I agree, actually. KB2 is a far superior film for me.

Tomas L. Martin said...

The second two matrix films are a pet subject for me too. They missed such a big hook because for no apparent reason as soon as neo was invincible to the agents, all the other characters could beat them too. If Neo had to save everyone from the agents because they could still kill Morpheus and co at will, that would have made an interesting movie about the responsibilities of being a god, a la superman. As it was, it was just all pointlessness.

Rasselas said...

Interesting that you mention "Killing Floor." I've just finished the latest Jack Reacher book, "One Shot," and didn't like it, as I didn't particularly like the others in the series. One reason might be that John D. MacDonald is dead, and for a man without a sense of humor to try to imitate him is kind of irritating, but another is that Reacher is kind of a dick.

Craig Perko said...

(For those who asked about it, "pipe" roughly translates to "exposition".)

I think this post is probably your most popular post yet, and for good reason.

Robot Porter said...

The biggest problem with the second two MATRIX films was they weren't about the ... um ... MATRIX.

A big reminder to writers everywhere: Remember what your movie is about. And if you're not writing about that, you're not writing your movie.

John has aptly explained how this piece of advice must apply to action scenes as well.

Jean-Paul Cardier said...

'If you've seen the sequels, all I have to say is "Burly Brawl", and you get my point.'

Thank you! I had a month long arguement with another poster on a forum about why the Burly Brawl blew chunks. I had big problems with it, and the fight between Neo and the Oracles Guardian, for the same reason: No suspense. No raison d'etre. Specifically the Burly Brawl went on for long enough it became boring. Death for an action scene.

Compare these scenes to Hard Boiled or The Killer. Regardless of whether or not the protagonists are in phyiscal danger in an action scene (they may or may not be), they are always emotionally in danger. This is very seldom seen in most American action flicks, and it shows.

This is why I found Matrix Reloaded so disappointing I haven't made time to see Revolutions. Mind you, Reloaded does have Monica Belucci in Vinyl (very good), but then has kissing her Neo in one of the most sexless, chemistryless scenes ever (bad), only to be trumped by the Neo / Trinity sex scene, also sexless (extremely bad).....

jnr said...

ah...that's a fine post. i love this blog. i learn things here. thanks.

interesting how often real characterization goes out the window when the action sequences begin, and fuzzy mannerism replaces it. when in the real world the way a character deals with physical confrontation, the prospect of death, and the mechanics of combat reveal worlds about them.

Jacob said...

But without pipe, the world would never have gotten Dr. Fraser Crane.

Whaledawg said...

Actualy, I thought the car chase in the second matrix movie to be a great action sequence. And for the same reasons you listed, they may or may not die and they may or may not get away with the key maker. Was that long enough ago that the car chase scene has died since then?

Rogers said...

keymaker can't die -- no third act. They got you with the motorcycle bit.

For me, that sequence is actually one of the confirming moments for me that car chases are indeed dead. If that couldn;t get me, nothing could.

Whaledawg said...

Sure the keymaker could die. At the time you didn't even know what he did. He could have died and then handed them a key with his last breath. The albino's could have taken him back. He could have run off on his own again at some point. It certainly was not pre-ordained that the keymaker live.

Emphyrio said...

Right, Whaledawg. Also, there is sheer poetry in the moment-to-moment cause/effect play of the Twins being solid, then not, and the Agents taking over other drivers.

Sometimes enough twists, if rigorously logical, are breathtaking in themselves.

That, and a spectacularly satisfying finish of those accordioning trucks and Neo's twisting grab rescue.

I also thought the burly brawl made a story point: Neo thought he could take care of Smith, no problem. Only after fighting for so long, and realized Smith can overwrite as many Bluepills as he wants, does Neo realize he can't.

I'm sorry they didn't get the shots they planned of Neo flying away, a comet trail of Smiths hanging on to him until he shakes them off by whipping the tail into a skyscraper. That'd've been a hoot.

Now, Revolutions...the final Neo/Smith fight had none of the cause/effect play, and so was without suspense. No blow changed much of anything.

But I still admire their choice of not destroying the Machines utterly and figuratively blowing up their Death Star.

Neo cut a deal, which is how wars often end. An adult choice.

Your core advice is a great insight, though. Yes, that's exactly it.

alau said...

Hi,

Came across your blog while looking for some action scene writing help. I'm not a screen writer but a romance writer and I've found this post really helpful. Thanks!

Anonymous said...

Very interesting. I have had 5 screenplays produced and three of them relied on a fair amount of action and now when I look back, the most satisfying one is the one that did follow that principle. The idea of what else can one lose through an action sequence outside of their life?

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Zess said...

I'm not a screen-writer but like alau I write romances. I continually find it difficult to write a romantic story without having to throw a sex scene in there somewhere. The mass majority of people that read romances are only looking for something akin to written pornography.


There is no care for the story anymore. I find the same things from American movies (which is mostly what I get, because I live in the good ol' U.S.)It's a naked girl, guns, a car chase, and the end of the world.

However, this post helped a bunch. At the very least it gave me a few ideas about how to keep the sex drivel out ofmy romance novels and make them something interesting!

On a post note, I think the film Pan's Labyrinth is one of the best action sequenced movies in a long time.

Thanks again

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